DRUG THERAPY: NICOTINE INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACEPTIVES

WHAT IS DRUG THERAPY?

Drug therapy is the administration of drugs to treat or prevent disease. It is used to treat a variety of illnesses and diseases, ranging from severe psychiatric illness to the treatment of deadly disease cancer. This type of therapy is also referred to as pharmacotherapy. The medication prescribed via this type of therapy is available in various forms – either taken orally as a pill or liquid or injected into the body. Drug therapy is used to treat various psychiatric diseases. A common problem that occurs during drug therapy is that the body of the patient develops a tolerance to the drugs taken, which leads to an increase in the dose in order for the drug to be effective.

THE INTERFERENCE OF NICOTINE

Nicotine can be classified as a recreational drug. Regular drug consumption can affect the metabolism, interfere with other drugs and substances, cause CNS effects, and alter the generation and the functioning of platelets. A noteworthy characteristic of nicotine is that it causes addiction because it interferes with chemical processes in the brain and stimulates the generation of adrenaline in the body. Many people who consume nicotine simultaneously consume contraceptives too to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NICOTINE

Pathological processes associated with nicotine addiction primarily include the biochemical and hormonal responses to exposure to nicotine. When the blood absorbs the drug, it is conveyed to the brain, which causes the release of adrenalin (the hormone generated by the adrenals above the kidneys in the body). This process done at addiction treatment centers is not considered pathological unless there is an intervention of a recreational drug as a pathological influence. The process can be considered pathological where there is the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms: the effect of the adrenalin (usually excitement and euphoria) is short-term, and due to this, the person seems to require a new dose which leads to the consumption of the nicotine may be in the form of a cigarette.

The discontinuation of the drug leads to adverse withdrawal effects and not just psychological effects like anxiety and depression but also physical effects like headache, increased feeling of hunger, and the feeling of muscle discomfort. Now the diagnosis of contraception needs does not involve pathological processes unless there is suppressing ovulation through chemical exposure to particular drugs. This can be viewed as pathological, but it is questionable because the process is not related to the development of a disease. People who also have extreme cases of drug dependency can visit rehab centers for counseling.

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA

According to Woo and Robinson (2016), the criteria for diagnosing a patient can be divided into two major categories: Dependence and withdrawal.
Dependence criteria include tolerance (this leads to the consumption of the more considerable amount of the drug to experience the same effect as the early stage of consumption) and the presence of the withdrawal effects. Many researchers consider other factors as well, for example, the psychological and the social criteria, such as the time and the effort the person spends on consuming the drug and the social activities the person gives up for the drug. The volume of intake is also an essential component of a person addicted to nicotine, how much drug the person consumes in a week.

The withdrawal criteria also include the presence of a depressed mood, other symptoms like insomnia, negative emotions (anger and frustration ), and restlessness. The criteria for diagnosing the patient with contraceptive needs are the patient’s current contraceptive situation and the person’s willingness to prevent the harmful effects of nicotine. Blood tests are done to identify the amount of nicotine in the body and the contraceptive-related hormones. To treat people with drug addictions, there are various treatment centers available.

GOAL OF THE DRUG THERAPY

In the cases where a person is consuming contraceptives, the patient should give up nicotine usage. The hormonal changes in the body are a common side effect of contraceptives, and at this point, the patient should stay away from drugs like nicotine.
The goal of nicotine replacement therapy is to control the nicotine level, prevent withdrawal symptoms, and make it easier for the person to live without the drug.

CONCLUSION

Nicotine is most commonly consumed in the form of cigarettes. Many people consume a heavy amount of cigarettes every single day. People should reduce the amount of the drug for their health. In the long term, these drugs disturb the body’s metabolism and overall functioning. Prevention is better than cure; people should pay attention to their bodies and respect them.

 

 

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